DEVELOPMENT OF RELIGION BASED RELIGION BASED POLITICAL PARTIES IN INDONESIA 1999-2004

Abstract

There were only five Islamic party that still remain include Partai Amanat Nasional (PAN), Partai Keadilan Sejahtra (PKS), Partai Bulan Bintang (PBB), Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (PPP) and Partai Kebangkitan Bangsa (PKB) in 1999-2004 election. This situation affected the re-active in the world of politics by going directly to win a particular party. PKB vote raked by 12.61% established itself as the 3rd winner in 1999 legislative elections. In 2004, PKB gained 10, 57% (11.989.54) vote results and got as many as 52 seats in DPR. Partai Keadilan (PK) got the votes around 1,436,565 votes or approximately 1.36% of all the number of votes, placing 7 representatives in DPR in the period 1999-2004. In the 1999 legislative election, PAN gained a vote at 7.12% and to position as four legislative options.

PPP’s vote tended to stabilize since the New Order until 1999 legislative electionswith the position of 10.71% vote. PPP’ votes shrink by 2.55% from 1999 to 2004. In the 1999 election, Partai Bulan Bintang won 2.05 million votes or about 2% and won 13 seats in DPR RI. While in the 2004 elections Partai Bulan Bintang won a vote of 2,970,487 voters (2.62%) and get 11 seats in DPR.

In the 1999 elections, Islamic parties had sprung up quite a lot and participated in the election. However, Islamic parties were still inferior to the Nationalist parties like PDI-P who became the winner of the 1999 elections with 33.8% of votes followed under it the Golkar party with 22.5% of the vote. In the 2004 elections the Islamic parties who participated not as much as the 1999 elections. However, in the elections of 2004 the Islamic parties again failed and actually got the setback vote.

Keywords: religious political parties, Indonesia (1999-2004)

Introduction

The reform era was marked by the collapse of the New Order government by the student movement in 1998 (Khoirudin et al, 2010). Indonesia is known to have some type of party as religion ideology parties especially Islamic which is also divided into two, namely the Islamic principle where the principles and the ideology is Islamic such as the PPP, PBB and PKS and pluralist ideology parties based on past Islamic as PKB and PAN, but the whole can be said as Islamic parties. The 17 political parties of Islamic principle are such as PPP, PBB, PK, PP, PUI, PMB, PPIM, PID, PIB, PSII, PSII 1905, PNU, PKU, SUNI, KAMI, PAY and PUMI and two of them are parties based  Islamic masses namely PAN and PKB. The presence of the Islamic political parties are bringing new expectations, the political aspirations of Islamic will be represented and accommodated.[1]

Since the fall of Suharto in 1998, the freedom to establish political parties in the 1999 elections, had an impact on the next election, there were 24 parties that passed KPU verification and there were 7 of Islamic political parties, namely Partai Bulan Bintang (PBB), Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (PPP), Partai Nahdatul Ulama Indonesia (PNUI), Partai Amanat Nasional (PAN), Partai Kebangkitan Bangsa (PKB), Partai Keadilan Sejahtera (PKS), Partai Bintang Reformasi (PBR)[2]. The participation explosions of the Islamic parties establishment was a moment just happened in the first election of the reform era in 1999, for the next election in 2004, the number of Islamic political parties had decreased significantly, there were only five Islamic party that still remain include Partai Amanat Nasional (PAN), Partai Keadilan Sejahtra (PKS), Partai Bulan Bintang (PBB), Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (PPP) and Partai Kebangkitan Bangsa (PKB). This situation affected the re-active in the politics world by going directly to win a particular party.[3]

As is known, Islamic parties have become part of the democracy way in this country. In relation to Islamic, politic is a method of ijtihad in responding to people with a set of laws to realize the benefits and avoid things that harm the interests of the people.[4] Political party in the Islamic is a group of people who have aqidah and think the same to perform activities in answering the call of God.[5] Thus, Islamic political parties can be defined as a party that highlights the principles of Islamic in the ideology business and its social, which uses symbols and idiom of Islamic as the main reference in struggling for political purposes, interest and included in seizing the voters.[6]

The existence of the party is an interesting thing to talk about, especially for political parties based on Islamic. Indonesia is a country with Muslims majority of its citizens. Theoretically, with the majority of Muslim society will affect or encourage future acquisition voters or party vote. Thus, in the elections can be assumed that the party that is based on Islam will get the votes that are superior or even won the party as a landslide victory over the secular or nationalist parties. According to Dr. Zuly Qadir[7], discusses political relations with Muslims have a very strategic position, considering Indonesia’s population of 237 million total of 86.7% Muslim majority, as politically and sociologically those fact is very important to note, as well as being something that is relevant as object of study. In this study authors sought to explain the five (5) background story of political parties based on religion in Indonesia 1999-2004.

Body

5 (five) the development of political parties based on religion in Indonesia in 1999-2004, namely:

1. Partai Kebangkitan Bangsa

PKB is a political party of Conservatism ideology in Indonesia. Partai Kebangkitan Bangsa (PKB) was established in Jakarta on July 23, 1998, which was declared by the kiai NU and led by Muhaimin Iskandar. This first party followed elections in 1999 and in 2004 followed again. This NU party had filed Gus Dur as the president who served from 1999 to mid 2001. PKB vote raked by 12.61% established itself as the 3rd winner in 1999 legislative elections. In 2004, this party gained 10, 57% (11.989.54) vote results and got as many as 52 seats in DPR. This means a large decrease (50% of the seats) from the acquisition in 2004.

2. Partai Keadilan Sejahtera

Partai Keadilan (PK) was established on July 20, 1998 to coincide on Monday 26 Rabi al-Awwal 1419H (Nasiwan, 2003: 256). This party was declared by 52 Tarbiyah movement figures in the Hall of Al-Azhar Mosque, Kebayoran Baru Jakarta, attended by about 50000 supporters. The President of Partai Keadilan (PK) was Nurmahmudi Ismail. Partai Keadilan (PK) was based on Islamic without including Pancasila as the principle of its party (Nasiwan, 2003: 256). After one year post its declaration, Partai Keadilan (PK) managed to qualify to participate in the elections in 1999 and getting the votes around 1,436,565 votes or approximately 1.36% of all the number of votes, placing 7 representatives in the House of Representatives (DPR) in the period 1999 -2004.

On October 20, 1999, Partai Keadilan (PK) accepted the offer of the Ministry of Forestry and Plantation seats in the cabinet KH Abdurrahman Wahid then designated the president of Partai Keadilan (PK), Nurmahmudi Ismail as minister. Furthermore Nurmahmudi Ismail resigned from the president of Partai Keadilan (PK) and replaced by Hidayat Nur Wahid, who was elected on May 21, 2000. However, by just getting the votes of 1.36% of the total vote, Partai Keadilan (PK) could not escaped the electoral threshold for contest elections again in 2004 that minimum should get at least 2% of the vote in accordance Election Law No. 13 of 2003. To be eligible for re-election in 2004, Partai Keadilan (PK) changed its name to Partai Keadilan Sejahtera (PKS). The addition of the word “sejahtera” with the basic philosophy that the new party would be formed not only emphasized the realm of justice and law at the political level, but also resolved the problem of not achieving well-being among low (Imdadun Rahmat, 2008: 38).

On July 2, 2003, Partai Keadilan Sejahtera (PKS) completed the entire process of verification of the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights (Depkehham) at the level of Regional Leadership Council (provincial level) and the Regional Leadership Council (at the district / city). A day later, Partai Keadilan (PK) joined with Partai Keadilan Sejahtera (PKS), the procession of the merger carried out officially on Thursday, July 3, 2003 in a notary, Tri Sulistiowarni, S.H. With this merger, all rights belong to Partai Keadilan (PK) belongs to Partai Keadilan Sejahtera (PKS), including board members and its cadres. With this merger, the PK (Partai Keadilan) officially changed its name to the PKS (Partai Keadilan Sejahtera). In the 2004 elections Partai Keadilan Sejahtera (PKS), the acquisition of its vote rose to 8.325.020 million votes or approximately 7.34% of the total vote[8].

PKS did ideology socialization of the party was done through three channels, namely: tarbiyah, underbow, party training. In the process of fostering cadres, Partai Keadilan Sejahtera (PKS) used tarbiyah assemblies and forums as a party cadre as ideological formation terrain, understanding of Islamic, and the political views of nationality. Cadre system of Partai Keadilan Sejahtera (PKS) had a function to recruit and conduct training of all members, cadres and party functionaries (Imdadudin Rahmat, 2008: 239). Until recently, the tarbiyah cadre that was known liqo or meetings (mentoring) occupy a prime position in the cadre and coaching for Partai Keadilan Sejahtera (PKS) (Imdadudin Rahmat, 2008: 239).

3. Partai Amanat Nasional

Partai Amanat Nasional (PAN) is a political party in Indonesia. The principle of this party is the “Politics Moral Based on Religion Brings Mercy for All Nature” (AD Chapter II, Article 3 (2). PAN was founded in August 1998 based on R3 ladder upon authorization by the Human Rights Department of Justice No.M-20.UM.0.08 date August 27 2003. The current Chairman is Hatta Rajasa, the Chairman of the Advisory Council chaired by Amien Rais. The birth of Partai Amanat Nasional (PAN), assisted by Majelis Amanat Rakyat (MARA), one of the organs of the reform movement in the era of Soeharto, PPSK Muhammadiyah and Group Tebet . In the 1999 legislative election, PAN gained a vote at 7.12% and to position itself as four legislative options.

PAN was declared in Jakarta on August 23, 1998 by 50 national leaders. Earlier in the meeting on 5th August 1998 in Bogor, they agreed to form Partai Amanat Bangsa (PAB), which later changed its name to Partai Amanat Nasional (PAN), PAN aimed to uphold and uphold the sovereignty of the people, justice, material progress and spiritual. Ideals party rooted in religious moral, humanitarian, and plurality. PAN was adhered to the principle of non-secretariat and non-discriminatory. For the realization of the New Indonesia, PAN once made the remark discourse of dialogue was fairness in managing resources so that people all over Indonesia could really feel as citizens of the nation. In the 2004 election, PAN running mate Amien Rais and Siswono Yudo Husodo as a candidate for president and vice president to be elected directly. The pair won nearly 15% of the national vote.[9]

4. Partai Persatuan Pembangunan.

PPP is a fusion party, that of Islamic-based parties which are compressed by the New Order into one single Islamic party. Nahdlatul Ulama is Muslim Party of Indonesia (heir of Masjumi), Partai Syarikat Islam Indonesia, and Movements Tarbiyah Islamiyah become its builders. During legislative elections inthe New Order, PPP experienced depoliticization effect of government. The proponents of Islamic parties, for the most part, were choosing PPP as a minimum option.

PPP vote tended to stabilize since the New Order until 1999 legislative electionswith the position of 10.71% of the vote. However, the positions of supporters of Islamic parties had a number of opportunities to translate their political choice more assertive. PPP votes shrink by 2.55% from 1999 to 2004. Vote of Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (PPP) entry threshold into parliament or legislative threshold (PT), The Chairman of Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (PPP), Suryadharma Ali (SDA) was disappointed could not exceed the target of votes. Many factors influence PPP’s failure in achieving the targets in the future elections. For example, as conditions change, environmental change, then the party machine competitors. The acquisition of PPP votes in the elections this time is by 5.5 percent.

5. Partai Bulan Bintang

Partai Bulan Bintang was declared on June 17, 1998, although the actual embryo formation of the party could be tracked since 1989, when several prominent Islamic organizations formed BKUI (Badan Koordinasi Umat Islam), an institution that became a forum meeting of Islamic leaders in addressing the various problems.[10]

Partai Bulan Bintang (PBB) is an Indonesian political party based on Islam and regards itself as the successor party Masyumi ever victorious during the Old Order. This party was voted in 1999 and 2004. In the 1999 election, Partai Bulan Bintang won 2.05 million votes or about 2% and won 13 seats in DPR RI. While in the 2004 elections Partai Bulan Bintang won a vote of 2,970,487 voters (2.62%) and get 11 seats in DPR. This party previously headed by Yusril Mahendra, a character who has served as Secretary of State. This figure has a mole on his face characteristics and is known as the man who pioneered the Post-Reform Constitutional Amendment, in the middle of several prominent Federalism demands.

Illustrations

In the 1999 elections, Islamic parties had sprung up quite a lot and participated in the election. Based on the KPU data website source, of the 48 parties that participated in this election, there were 17 Islamic parties registered to participate. Several major Islamic parties, who participated, among others, were PPP, PKB, PBB, new Masyumi, PAN and others. The Islamic parties had potentially won majority vote anyway. However, the results of the 1999 election were to speak another.

Islamic parties lost or failed to win the majority of society vote who were Muslim. Islamic parties were not able to reap significant vote, the Islamic party who gaining the most votes, namely PPP with the acquisition of 10.72%, followed under it PBB was only 1.94% and the 15 other Islamic parties who obtained lower vote. While parties who based Islamic period such as PKB gained 12.6% and PAN was only 7.1%. From these results proved that the Islamic parties were still inferior to the Nationalist parties like PDI-P who became the winner of the 1999 elections with 33.8% of votes followed under it the Golkar party with 22.5% of the vote.


Sumber:

[1] Aminuddin, Kekuatan Islam dan Pergulatan Kekuasaan di Indonesia, (Yokyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar, 1999)

[2]Utaria, Sri. 2008. Tipologi Politik Partai Politik Di Indonesia Kontestan Pemilu 2004./http://digilib.uin-suka.ac.id/2731/1/BAB%20I,%20V,%20DAFTAR%20PUSTAKA.pdf

[3] Musyrifah Sunanto, Sejarah Peradaban Islam Indonesia (Jakarta: PT Raja Grafindo Persada2005), 89.

[4] Salim Alim al Bahansawi, Wawasan Sistem Politik Islam, Alih Bahasa Mustolah Maufur (Jakarta: Pustaka al Kautsar, 1995). Hlm, 23.

[5]http://angelfire.com/de/assalam/assalam008.html.

[6] www.hamline.cu/apakabar/barisdata/1999/04/0048.html.

[7] Zuly Qodir, HTI Dan PKS Menuai Kritik : Perilaku Gerakan Islam Politik Indonesia. (Yogyakarta : JKSG, 2013)

[8](http://www.pk-sejahtera.org/content/sejarah)

[9]http://www.slideshare.net/3MyaMiranda/pkn-pemilu

[10] Kholid Novianto dan Al Chaidar, Era Baru Indonesia : Sosialisasi Pemikiran Amien Rais, Hamzah Haz, Matori Abdul Djalil, Nur Mahmudi dan Yusril Izha Mahendra. (Jakarta : Rajawali Press, 1999).Hal 149. 

Ingin dibuatkan seperti ini??
Butuh versi lengkap??
Atau ada tugas-tugas costum lainnya??
Silahkan Hubungi geraijasa.com di no wa 082138054433

Tinggalkan Balasan

Alamat email Anda tidak akan dipublikasikan. Ruas yang wajib ditandai *