The purpose of this research was to: (1) discover how the steps to develop performance evaluation model of the principal as an effort to improve the professionalism of kindergarten school teachers, (2) get performance evaluation model guide devices of the principal as an effort to improve the professionalism of proper teachers, and (3) determine the performance of kindergarten principal in DIY. This research used Research and Development method, which consists of four stages, namely: (1) the preliminary stage, (2) the evaluation model planning stage, (3) the pilot stage, evaluation and revision, and (4) the implementation stage. The results showed that (1) the procedure to develop performance evaluation model of the principal as an effort to improve the professionalism of kindergarten school teachers by applying procedural development research, (2) guide devices on the performance evaluation model implementation of the principal as an effort to increase the professionalism of kindergarten teachers were declared eligible by the experts that the eligibility instrument is proved by a score mean of 4.40 or very good, while for the evaluation guide was also considered to be very good with score mean of 4.42. As for instruments readability in value by 9 principals got score mean of 3.80 good categories, while the evaluation guide of 3.32 was also good category, while the assessed performance level by 12 principals of 1.92 for the teaching component, 1.90 for components of school organization, and 1.87 for the managerial component or excellent category. While the assessed performance level by 20 kindergarten teachers total average of 1.90 with 1.9 each component for teaching component, 1.92 for components of school organization, and 1.90 for the managerial component or excellent category, (3) the principal performance level as an effort to improve the professionalism of kindergarten teachers in 19 schools showed total average of 1.90 with each component score of 1.88 for the teaching component, 1.89 for components of school organization, and 1.75 for the managerial component or excellent category. While the assessed performance level by 30 kindergarten teachers of 1.92 for the teaching component, 1.90 for components of school organization, and 1.92 for the managerial component of very well criteria.
Keywords: models, evaluation, performance, principal, and professional teacher.
The quality of learning in an educational system was influenced by the availability of facilities and infrastructure of learning, activity and creativity of teachers and students in the learning process. Teaching and learning activities would be qualified if supported by professional teachers who had professional competence, pedagogical, personality, and social (Law on Teachers and Lecturers Article 10). In addition, the quality of learning could also be maximized if it was supported by qualified students (intelligent, have a high motivation to learn and a positive attitude in learning), and supported by adequate learning infrastructure.
The school principal as instructional leader was one of the determining factors that could encourage schools to realize the vision, mission, goals and objectives through various programs carried out in a planned manner. Holyfield and Cline (2007: 109) stated that one of the main tasks of school principal was to improve the performance of teachers. The same thing also expressed by Dufour & Barkey (2005: 1) that the success of school improvement efforts depended on the efforts of professionalism development in the school, and the main one was teachers’ professionalism development.
Therefore, principals were required to work both, professional and responsive to the aspirations of the people and the dynamics of environmental change and were able to accomplish tasks effectively and efficiently. The ability of a school principal in leading would be very influential in improving the professionalism of teachers. This research focused on the performance evaluation model of principals in improving the professionalism of Kindergarten teachers in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. Based on the problem background and identification problems that had been described above, the problem formulations were as follows: 1) how the steps in the performance evaluation model development of principals in improving the professionalism of kindergarten teachers in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, 2) how the feasibility of performance evaluation models devices of principals in improving the professionalism of kindergarten teachers in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, 3) how the level of performance of principals in improving the professionalism of kindergarten teachers in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta.
B. Literature Review
According to Slamet (2001: 2) “Leadership of school principals became one of the inputs for schools in performing their duties and functions as well as the effect on the process of schooling”. National Education Department Employee Training and Education Center (2005: 58) said that “leadership of school principals showed the behavior shown by school leaders in the activities of school resources management primarily to manage the school community”. The leadership of principals regarded to the use of influence that could include position authority and expertise in management process and resources administration that could produce results (National Education Department Employee Training and Education, 2005: 94).
According to Harold J. Leavitt “Manager or leaders, in one way or another, must influenced other people to do what managers wanted them to do,” (Harold J. Leavitt, 2005: 145). Manager or leader, in one way or another, had to influence others to do what the manager wanted them to do. It could be concluded that the principal as a manager in the school hold the most important role to achieve the school’s objectives that had been outlined in the vision and mission of the school.
As a leader, school principal should be an example for teachers, employees and students and other school communities. The modeling example came from the word model meaning enviable or good to be emulated (Indonesian Dictionary, 1996; 253). According to Gary Yuki “exemplification tactics used to influence subordinates or peers include acting in a way that is consistent with espoused values (walking the talk) and making self-Sacrifices to Achieve a proposed objective, change, or vision.” (Gary Yuki 2006: 133). Modeling was used to influence subordinates or colleagues including acting in a consistent manner with the espoused values (walking by talking) and make self-sacrifice in order to achieve the proposed goals, change, or vision to be achieved.
While the concept of assessment was the process of providing information about individual of students, curriculum, institutional or anything related to the institutional system. “Process was that provide information about individual students, about curricula or programs, about institutions, or about entire systems of institutions” (Stark & Thomas, 1994: 46). Thus it could be concluded that the assessment was an activity of interpreting measurement result data. Evaluation had a different meaning to the term assessment, measurement and test. Hopkins and Stanley said that “evaluations was a process of summing up the results of measurements or tests, giving them some meaning based on value judgments” or the process of summing up the results of measurement or test to give meaning based on the determination of the value (Oriondo, 1998: 3).
In this conception, evaluation was interpreted as determining the value of the thing, which included the collection of information used to determine the success of a program, products, procedures, objectives or potential benefits of the approach alternative design, to retain a special approach. While Cizek (2000: 16) stated that the evaluation is “the process of ascribing merit or worth to the results of on observation or the data collection”. Evaluation was a process of determining the value of taking into account the results of the observation or the collection of data obtained.
The term performance according to Bernardin and Russel in Ruky (2001: 15) was defined as follows: “Performance was defined as the record outcomes produced on a specified job function or activity during a specified period”, in this case the performance was defined as a record of the results derived from specific job functions or specific activities for certain periods as well. Meanwhile Suryadi Prawirosentono in Akhmad Subekhi and Mohammad Jauhar (2012: 193), said that the performance was the result of work that could be achieved by a person or group of people within an organization, in accordance with each authority and responsibilities, in order to attempt to achieve organizational goals concerned legally, did not violate the law and in accordance with moral and ethical.
Teacher’s performance was also related to the responsibilities of a teacher in carrying out their duties, it was in accordance with the opinion of James Lewis in Natapriatna (2001: 14): “a performance objective was a statement of a personal commitment to perform a specific act that was oriented toward the philosophy of the school district”. It could be defined that the purpose of a performance is a statement of responsibility for someone to carry out specific actions oriented towards the philosophy of the school organization. Meanwhile, according to Rutman Richard (2003: 7) “performance could be defined very simply as focused behavior or purposeful work. In other words, jobs exist to achieve specific and defined result, and people were employed to do reviews those jobs because the organization wants to achieve reviews those result”.
Performance could be defined very simply as behavior that focus or work purposes. In other words, the existing work was to achieve specific results and certainly, and people who were hired to do their job because the organization wanted to achieve that result. To achieve maximum performance, teachers should strive to develop all their competence and utilized and created situations that exist in the school environment in accordance with existing regulations.
C. Research Method
This study used a Research and Development method, Borg, WR & Gall, M.D. (1989), which consisted of four stages, namely: (1) the preliminary stage, (2) the evaluation model planning stage, (3) the pilot stage, evaluation and revision, and (4) the implementation stage. The trial subject in this study was conducted three stages namely pre-trials involving 3 experts and practitioners in education, testing the readability of instruments and guidelines was applicable to 9 trial subjects to kindergarten principal in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta and field operations trial were applied to 19 trial subjects to kindergarten principal in some kindergartens in the city of Yogyakarta, Bantul and Kulon Progo in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta.
Data collection techniques used the technique of questionnaires, documents, observation, and interviews. Validity and reliability of the questionnaires instrument used the expert validation. While the validity of qualitative data was validated by the review informant model, and triangulation of data. Quantitative data analysis was with descriptive analysis techniques and qualitative data with interactive analysis model.