Unbalanced job opportunities are a central issue in every country, especially in Indonesia. The purpose of this paper is to describe the portrait of unbalanced job opportunities with job seekers in Indonesia and review the factors and solutions. The factors that cause unbalanced job opportunities with job seekers are population density, limited employment, low education, companies that apply the system of contract workers (outsourcing) and labour force that does not meet the requirements of the world of work. To overcome, it is required an integrated coordination between government, business and education.
The development in various sectors of Indonesia requires skilled workers with certain qualifications. Various jobs are open at all times, however job seekers are much more than the available quota. The explosion of the workforce looking for work can be seen in one of the examples reported by www.kompas.com on January 12, 2010 that thousands of applicants fulfilled the job fair held by one of the event organizer. The phenomenon was always happening in Jakarta and other big cities in Indonesia (Anindita Dyah Sekarpuri, 2011).
Unbalanced occurs when the number of job seekers is greater than the available job opportunities. According to Employment Department of Batam City in Tribun, the number of job seekers in 2014 was 21.913 and only 40% were getting work placements. The high number of job seekers was not balanced with the amount of job opportunities in Batam. Only 8.577 who had job placements (Candra P. Pusponegoro, 2015). In addition, the number of job opportunities in Semarang City was still not balanced with the amount of job seekers. The condition caused job seekers had trouble getting the job they wanted (Radar Semarang, 2018).
Job opportunities are a condition that describes the availability of employment in the community. The statement can be seen from the condition of employment in Indonesia. The large population of Indonesia coupled with the high rate of population growth that should be a driver of economic activity increases the burden of economic development. However, the high population growth rate is not accompanied by the growth of job opportunities. This is the main cause of unemployment.
In Indonesia, job opportunities are still low compared to the number of job seekers. The low number of job seekers is one of them influenced by the lack of job seekers’ skills. According to Wartini, Section Head of Job Expansion Placement of Manpower, Social and Transmigration Department of Bogor City, the placement and the number of company needs between the numbers of job seekers had not been balanced. Most of them affected by the mismatch between interests and need. In addition, the job seekers’ skills were largely incompatible with the needs of the company. There were still many job seekers of high school graduates, whereas most sought after graduates of SMK (Pikiran Rakyat, 2011). It means job seekers do not have the competence of available job opportunities.
The admission of employees is not balanced with applicants who enter; this is due to many factors. The most important is the quality and qualifications of applicants in accordance or not with the job vacancy. The factors that cause unbalanced job opportunities with job seekers are:
- Population density
With more people in Indonesia, more job seekers are increasing. Unbalanced job opportunities with job seekers in Indonesia also caused by the number of graduates each year.
- Limited employment
Limited employment is due to unbalanced employment with a lot of unemployment. The skills of job seekers in Indonesia are still limited.
- Low education
This is the result of poverty that makes the children of the nation still have a low education whereas much needed is high-level graduates such as D3/S1 very far with graduates who can only graduate to elementary school.
- Companies that apply the system of contract workers (outsourcing)
The existence of a contract system in the company to make employees who have ends contract become unemployed.
- A labour force that does not meet the requirements of the world of work
The requirements set by the world of work are not appropriate or the worker is less competent.
Indonesia has not felt the equitable welfare. One of the factors is that unbalanced job opportunities with job seekers. The factors that cause unbalanced job opportunities with job seekers are population density, limited employment, low education, companies that apply the system of contract workers (outsourcing) and labour force that does not meet the requirements of the world of work. The most important is the quality and qualifications of applicants in accordance or not with the job vacancy. The government should continue to improve the quality of human resources, to become qualified job seekers and able to compete with other regions or countries. They should hold job fair or job market continuously. Overcoming the problem of unbalanced job opportunities with job seekers requires the participation of many parties. The need for work is closely related to the needs of the community in fulfilling its livelihood. Therefore, in the issue of unbalanced job opportunities with job seekers are required an integrated coordination between government, business and education.
Pikiran Rakyat. 2011. Penyerapan Tenaga Kerja tak Seimbang dengan Jumlah Pencari Kerja.http://www.pikiran-rakyat.com/ekonomi/2011/11/18/166031/penyerapan-tenaga-kerja-tak-seimbang-dengan-jumlah-pencari-kerja
Pusponegoro, Candra P. 2015. Jumlah Pelamar Tidak Seimbang Dengan Ketersediaan Lapangan Kerja. http://batam.tribunnews.com/2015/01/09/jumlah-pelamar-tidak-seimbang-dengan-ketersediaan-lapangan-kerja
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