Background

To compare with others country, a country must have positive image. Building positive image is benefit in order to the country is not lagged behind by the others. Therefore, it needs a way to be able to make the country is viewed well in global area. Negative image will make the country is avoided by the others or it is difficult when the country will make business relationship with the others. How the country could work to correct the negative image produced by the marketplace and harness the power of other actors to increase their own voice on the world stage is conducted by public diplomacy (Leonard, Stead & Smewing, 2002: p.7).[1]

Public diplomacy has many definitions from some experts. Leonard, et. al (2002, p.7) stated that public diplomacy should be focused on the countries which are most relevant to our interests – not those which are easiest to influence.[2] According to J.B. Manhein, public diplomacy is Efforts by the government of one nation to influence public or elite opinion in a second nation for the purpose of turning foreign policy of the target nation to advantage.(Bannet, W. Lance & David L. Paletz in Uasni, 2014). [3]

H. Tuch (Uasni, 2014) defined public diplomacy as:  “A Government’s process of communicating with foreign publics in an attempt to bring about understanding for its nation’s ideas and ideals, its institutions and culture, as well as its national goals and current policies. Public diplomacy is a tool to encourage people’s perception or other countries toward the country. The public diplomacy is useful to give positive image of the country, state institution and citizen of the state.

Löffelholz (2012) stated that public diplomacy is also able to promote idea, opinion, and culture of the country. The growth of public diplomacy along with global development has left hard ways through military forces and money in imposing idea and opinion of the country.[4] Public diplomacy is far different with propaganda. Public diplomacy is open discussion to challenge, while propaganda tries to influence hardly others to accept the will without any challenge. Then, it can infer that public diplomacy is understanding each other.

In public diplomacy, there are several elements which are used in applicability as a tool of soft diplomacy media, among others: listening, advocacy, cultural exchange, cultural diplomacy and broadcasting international news (Cull, 2008: 32-34).[5]

In addition, recently, practice of public diplomacy is influenced by some factors. The factors are revolution in technology and information, improvement role of mass media, globalization in business and financial system so that increase activity of economy diplomacy, improvement of public participation in international relationship, development of issues among the countries such as human’s rights, environment, refugees, terrorism and international criminality (Hermawan, 2007).[6]

Case Study: Dualism Management of Indonesia Football

Dualism conflict between PSSI and KPSI invited international public opinion. The opinion appeared when Indonesia suffered the biggest defeat against Bahrain with a score of 10-0. It was followed by a decline in the national team’s achievement in various international events and also the death of one foreign player career in Indonesia. The results began when the leadership crisis at the time Djohar Arifin in 2011-2012. The policies adopted by the PSSI is the controversy that tends to support the policy’s Arifin when PSSI leadership by Nurdin Halid. At the time of Djohar Arifin, discrimination against groups that do not support the decision of PSSI that the rule illegal the player should not be capped. The situation triggered some groups of people to defend the interests to get legalized side of PSSI discriminated against. Then, the groups of people called themselves as KPSI (Indonesian Football Rescue Committee).


[1] Leonard M., Stead, C., and Smewing, C. (2002). Public Diplomacy. London: The Foreign Policy Centre, p. 6

[2] ibid, p.7

[3] Uasni, M. H. (2014). upaya diplomasi publik pemerintah Indonesia dalam memperbaiki citra sepakbola Indonesia di dunia internasional (Studi kasus dualisme kepengurusan PSSI tahun 2011-2012). eJournal Ilmu Hubungan Internasional,  2 (1) : 183 : 194

[4] Löffelholz, M. (2012). Public Diplomacy: International Experiences and Indonesian Needs. A Public Seminar material delivered at University of Padjajaran, Retrieved from: http://news.unpad.ac.id/?p=60439, Indra Nugraha, Public Diplomacy Mempengaruhi Kedudukan Negara di Mata Dunia, on November, 16, 2015.

[5] Cull, N. J., (2008).  The Cold War and the United States Information Agency: American Propaganda and Public Diplomacy, 1945-1989. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[6] Hermawan, Y. P., (2007). Transformation in the international relations studies: Actors, issues and Methodology. Bandung: Graha Ilmu Bandung, p. 52.

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